Download A Brief History of Pakistan by James Wynbrandt Book in PDF for PMS, CSS Exams Preparation
List of Illustrations vii
List of Maps viii
1 The Land and Its Early History 1
2 Inroads of Armies and Ideas (500 B.C.E.–700 C.E.) 22
3 The Coming of Islam (700–1526) 41
4 The Mughal Period (1526–1748) 67
5 Trading Company Wars (1748–1858) 94
6 The Raj Era (1858–1909) 114
7 The Road to Independence (1909–1947) 138
8 The Challenges of Independence (1947–1958) 160
9 Military Rule (1958–1971) 183
10 Between East and West (1971–1988) 202
11 Civilian Rule Restored (1988–1999) 225
12 A Return to the World Stage (1999–2008) 253
1 Glossary 282
2 Basic Facts about Pakistan 286
3 Chronology 291
4 Bibliography 300
5 Suggested Reading 307
In the course of a few years, Pakistan has assumed strategic importance on the world stage, acting as both a linchpin in the global war on terrorism and a “swing” state in the ideological conflict between democracy and dictatorship, and between Islamic and secular rule. How did this poor country come to occupy such a position in little more than half a century of existence? What are the historical precedents for its present course? And what can we learn from its past that can help us evaluate the prospects for its future?
A Brief History of Pakistan presents a concise yet thorough account of this land whose past as a birthplace of civilization is as important to world history as is its pivotal place in contemporary geopolitics. Coverage includes the dramatic events, notable people, and special customs and traditions that have shaped this country. By illuminating the nation’s past, this book gives students a detailed perspective of Pakistan today and enables them to intelligently consider how it might change in the future.
- The land and its people
- The Indus Valley Civilization
- The Mughal period
- British rule and the struggle for independence
- Civilian and military rule
- Islamization of Pakistan
- Pakistan under Pervez Musharraf
- Relations with the United States, India, and Afghanistan
- Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program
- Secular/Islamic tensions.
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Short History of Pakistan
Pakistan emerged on the world map as an independent sovereign state in August 1947, as a result of the division of the British Indian Empire. With a land area of 881,888 sq. km. [including Punjab, Sindh, Khyber-Pakhtoonkhwa, Balochistan, Federal Administered Tribal Areas, Islamabad Capital Territory, Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Jammu & Kashmir], its population stands at nearly 177 million (2011 estimates). Historically, this is one of the most ancient lands known to man. Its cities flourished before Babylon was built; its people practiced the art of good living and citizenship before the celebrated ancient Greeks.
The region traces its history back to at least 2,500 years before Christ, when a highly developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley. Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Kot Diji have brought to light evidence of an advanced civilization flourishing here even in most ancient times. Around 1,500 B.C. the Aryans conquered this region and slowly pushed the Hindu inhabitants further east, towards the Ganges Valley. Later, the Persians occupied the northern regions in 5th century B.C. The Greeks came in 327 B.C., under Alexander of Macedonia, and ran through the region like a meteor. In 712 A.D. the Arabs, led by Mohammed Bin Qasim, landed somewhere near what is now Karachi, and ruled the lower half of Pakistan for two hundred years. During this time Islam took root and influenced the life, culture and traditions of the inhabitants of the region.
From 10th century A.D. onwards, a systematic conquest of Indo-Pakistan by the Muslims from Central Asia began and lasted up to 18th century A.D., when the British colonized the Sub-continent and ruled for nearly 200 years (for 100 years over what is now Pakistan). The Muslim revival began towards the end of the last century when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a renowned leader and educationist, launched a movement for intellectual renaissance of the Indian Muslims. In 1930, the well-known poet/philosopher, Dr. Mohammed Iqbal conceived the idea of a separate state for the Muslims of the Sub-continent, and in 1940, the All-India Muslim League adopted the famous Pakistan Resolution.
After seven years of untiring struggle, under the brilliant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Pakistan emerged on the world map as a sovereign state on August 14, 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent states – India and Pakistan.